(All events occurred in Southern Rhodesia and Rhodesia unless indicated otherwise.)


First meeting of Central African Council.
Labour Government comes into power in Britain (July).
End of World War II (August).
Unofficial strike on Rhodesia Railways.


Liberal Party (led by Hon. J. H. Smit) gains 12 seats in the Southern Rhodesian General Election, forcing Sir Godfrey Huggins’ United Party to rely on Labour Party support in order to secure a working majority.
Urban Areas Act passed.


Royal Visit to Southern Rhodesia (April).


Huggins dissolves Parliament, and secures sweeping victory at the polls on a policy of loyalty to the Crown, closer association with the North, private enterprise, retention of English as sole official language. Garfield Todd enters Parliament as a member of the United Party.
Ian Smith enters Parliament as a member of the Liberal Party.
Industrial and other strikes on a large scale, particularly in Bulawayo.
Native Labour Board Act passed – designed to fix minimum conditions of employment.


Victoria Falls meeting to consider closer association of the territories (February).
Capricorn Africa Society formed by Col. David Stirling.


Group Areas Act passed in South Africa.


Exploratory conference on closer association held in London (March).
Second Victoria Falls Conference adopts concept of federation (September).
Conservative Party comes into power in Britain (October).
Native Land Husbandry Act passed.


London Conference on Federation (April).


Final Conference in London to consider draft federal scheme. Referendum in Southern
Rhodesia on federal scheme (10 April). 25 570 pro, 14 729 anti.
Federation (Constitution) Order-in-Council receives assent of Queen (1 August).
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland inaugurated (October).
Foundation stone of multi-racial University College in Salisbury (Harare) laid.


First Federal Elections (]anuary). Federal Party gains huge majority, but Confederate Party secures one-third of votes cast in Southern Rhodesia.
Copper Companies move their head offices from London to Salisbury (Harare).


Start of implementation of Native Land Husbandry Act.
New railway line from Bannockburn to Lourenco Marques opened.
Decision taken by Federal Government to build Kariba Dam.


Capricorn Africa Society conference at Salima, Nyasaland (now Malawi).
Lord Malvern (Sir Godfrey Huggins) presents concept of two multi-racial voters’ rolls, with a
higher and a lower qualification.
African National Youth League (ANYL) formed in Salisbury (Harare) (May).


Tredgold Report on the franchise published (March).
Constitution Amendment Bill passes through Federal Parliament (31 July).
Amalgamation of ANYL and old ANCongress leads to formation of African National Congress (September).
Winston Field wins by-election (Federal) at Mrewa for the Dominion Party.
African Councils Act passed.
First student intake at University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.


Federal Electoral Act comes into force (1 January).
Garfield Todd faces Cabinet crisis and a demand for his resignation as Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia (January).
UFP Congress invites Sir Edgar Whitehead to lead the party in Southern Rhodesia.
General Election (5 June) returns UFP to power, but with strong Dominion Party representation.
Federal General Election (October) gives UFP 46 seats.
Pan-African Congress held in Accra (December).
Plewman Commission on Urban Housing submits Report.


State of Emergency declared (26 February).
Trade Disputes Act passed (March).
Industrial Conciliation Act (No. 29 of 1959) passed. (This Act brought Africans within the scope of the legislation governing labour disputes.)
Unlawful Organisations Act and Preventive Detention Acts passed.
ANCongress banned (May).
Education Act (designed to bring every African child into primary school by 1964) passed.


National Democratic Party formed (1 January).
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan makes famous ‘winds of change’ speech in Cape Town (January).
Monckton Commission arrives in Federation (February).
Sharpeville (March).
Kariba Dam opened by Queen Mother.
Select Committee of Parliament recommends eventual repeal of Land Apportionment Act (The
Quinton Report).
‘March of the 7 000’ (19 July).
Monckton Commission Report published (October).
National Convention held in Salisbury (Harare) (October/November).
NDP Inaugural Congress (November).
Federal Review Conference in London (December).


Constitutional discussions in Salisbury (Harare) (January-February).
NDP denounces the proposals resulting from these discussions (February).
Pass Laws repealed (April).
Land Apportionment Act amended to allow Africans to obtain freehold title to land in
African townships in European areas (April).
Referendum of electorate endorses constitutional proposals (41 919 to 21 846) (July).
Constitutional Conference agrees on new Constitution (7 September).
NDP banned (l0 December).
ZAPU formed (18 December).
Further amendment to Land Apportionment Act creates ‘Unreserved Land’ for use by persons of any race. Native areas now redesignated ‘Tribal Trust Lands’.


‘Build a Nation’ campaign (February—June).
Federal Election boycotted by Opposition parties (April).
Serious disorders in Salisbury (Harare) (May).
ZAPU banned (20 September).
Sabotage operations by ZLA (under ‘General Chedu’) (September—December).
Rhodesia Front wins General Election. Winston Field becomes Prime Minister (14


Mandatory death penalty for attempted arson introduced (February).
UFP replaced by Rhodesia National Party (under Sir Edgar Whitehead) (April).
Victoria Falls Conference on break-up of the Federation (June).
ZANU and PCC formed (August).
Mass rally at Cold Comfort Farm (10 August).
Federation dissolved (31 December).


Winston Field attends talks in London on independence issue (January).
Ian Smith replaces Winston Field as Prime Minister (April).
Joshua Nkomo restricted (16 April).
First ZANU Congress (May).
Malawi becomes independent state within the Commonwealth (6 July).
Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference in London expresses strong disapproval of
proposals for unilateral action on Southern Rhodesia’s independence (July).
Rhodesia Party (under Sir Roy Welensky and Sir Edgar Whitehead) formed (August).
Bulk of African nationalists restricted or detained (August).
African Daily News banned (26 August).
ZANU and PCC banned (26 August).
Highfield Township declared an Emergency Area (26 August).
Ian Smith attends discussions in London on independence issue (September).
Labour Party (under Harold Wilson) comes into power in Britain (October).
Zambia becomes an independent republic within the Commonwealth (24 October).
Chiefs’ Indaba at Domboshawa unanimously supports ‘cutting of strings’ (October).
Referendum gives overwhelming support to RF policies (5 November).


Retirement of Sir Edgar Whitehead. David Butler takes over leadership of RP (February).
First ZANU insurgents cross into Southern Rhodesia. Thirty-four captured (April).
RF wins all 50 ‘A’ Roll seats in General Election (May).
Ian Smith attends further talks in London (October).
Harold Wilson visits Salisbury (Harare) (October).
State of Emergency declared (5 November).
Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) (11 November).
Wide range of sanctions introduced by Britain and other countries.
1965 Constitution introduced.
Press Censorship imposed (November).


Majority of Commonwealth Prime Ministers (meeting in Lagos) uphold Britain’s refusal to use
force against Rhodesia (13 January).
White spaces in newspapers (to denote censored material) forbidden (8 February).
Exploratory talks between British and Rhodesian Governments start (August).
Discussions on HMS Tiger (December).
Rhodesian Cabinet rejects Tiger Proposals (5 December).
Selective mandatory sanctions imposed by Security Council (16 December).


Whaley Commission on the Constitution is set up.
First serious terrorist incursions (August).
South African Police sent to Rhodesia (Sept.).
Visit by George Thomson, Commonwealth Secretary, to Salisbury (Harare) (November).


First hanging of convicted criminals since 1965 (6 March).
Whaley Commission presents Report to Government (April).
Press Censorship lifted (April).
Whaley proposals rejected by RF (May).
UN Security Council imposes total trade and financial embargo (29 May).
Centre Party formed (August).
Caucus sub-committee and Divisional Chairman’s Committee of RF publish constitutional proposals – the ‘Yellow Paper’ – 17 July.
Rhodesian Government accorded dejure status by Rhodesian judiciary (13 September).
‘Yellow Paper’·accepted by RF Congress (Sept.).
Discussions on HMS Fearless (10-13 October).


Proposals for a new Constitution, involving declaration of an independent republic, receive
overwhelming support from a referendum of the Electorate (20 June).
Sir Humphrey Gibbs relinquishes post as Governor (July).
Land Tenure Act passed.


Declaration of a Republic (2 March).
General Election. RF retains all 50 ‘A’ Roll seats (10 April).
Conservative Party returns to power in Britain (June).


Lord Goodman visits Rhodesia (July).
FROLIZI formed (October).
Sir Alec Douglas-Home, British Foreign Secretary, and Ian Smith reach agreement on
constitutional settlement (24 November).
African National Council formed (16 December).


Pearce Commission in Rhodesia (January- March).
Pearce Commission reports rejection of Proposals by majority of Africans (May).
Rhodesia Party formed (August).
Contact established between ANC and Minister of Internal Affairs (Lance Smith) (October).
Serious terrorist incursions commence in north-eastern area (December).


Border between Zambia and Rhodesia closed (January).
Vigorous denial by Bishop Muzorewa that ANC supports terrorism (May).
Ian Smith promises “last massive attempt at Settlement” (June).
Discussions commence between Ian Smith and Bishop Muzorewa (17 July).
Twenty senior ANC officials detained (July).


Labour Party gains power in Britain (February)
and retains it in a second General Election (October).
ANC Congress confirms Bishop Muzorewa as President of Council (3 March).
Portuguese coup d’etat (25 April).
Confusion arises over Bishop Muzorewa’s alleged acceptance of a Settlement based on six extra seats in Parliament for Africans (June).
General Election (July). RF again win all 50 ‘A’ Roll seats.
Detente gathers momentum following John Vorster’s speech to S.A. Senate (23 October).
Joshua Nkomo, the Rev. N. Sithole and many other leading nationalists released from detention and restriction (November-December).
Lusaka Declaration (10 December).
All former nationalist groups agree to unite in the ANC under leadership of Bishop Muzorewa.


Death of Herbert Chitepo in Lusaka (18 March).
Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference in Jamaica (April).
Independence of Mocambique (25 June).
Victoria Falls talks between Rhodesian Government and ANC (25 August).
Prime Minister Vorster and President Kaunda meet for first time.
Split in ANC breaks surface (1 September).
Special Congress at Gwanzura Stadium, Highfield, elects Joshua Nkomo as President of ANC (28 September).
Disappearance of Dr Edson Sithole from outside a Salisbury (Harare) hotel (15 October).
Mass meeting of Muzorewa supporters at Gwanzura Stadium (28 October).
Talks between Ian Smith and Joshua Nkomo commence in Salisbury (Harare) (31 October).
Independence of Angola (11 November).
‘Declaration of Intent’ to hold a Constitutional Conference signed in Salisbury (Harare) by Ian Smith and Joshua Nkomo (1 December).
Constitutional talks start in Salisbury (Harare) (15 December).


New terrorist incursions in Eastern Districts (February).
Mocambique Government closes border with Rhodesia (3 March).
Smith/Nkomo talks break down (15 March).
James Callaghan, Prime Minister of Britain, calls on Ian Smith to accept principle of ‘Majority Rule within 18 months’ (22 March).
Outbreaks of violence in townships in South Africa (June).
Kissinger and Vorster hold talks in West Germany (18-20 June).
Further round of Kissinger/Vorster talks – this time in Zurich (5-6 September).
Ian Smith meets Kissinger in Pretoria (19 September).
Ian Smith announces acceptance of Kissinger ‘package deal’ (including Majority Rule in two years) (24 September).
Joshua Nkomo and Robert Mugabe announce formation of ‘Patriotic Front’ (9 October).
Conference to establish interim government in A Rhodesia opens in Geneva (28 October).
Conference adjourns (16 December).
Zimbabwe United People’s Organisation founded (29 December 1976).